Assembly of reference genomes

High-molecular DNA is extracted from samples of a single individual of each of the five species, and the entire genome is sequenced using the latest “long read sequencing method” (PacBio Sequel II; HiFi reads). These long DNA fragments are necessary so that the whole genome can be assembled as accurately and completely as possible. The newly assembled genomes for each species then serve as reference genomes and are the basis for further genetic analyses. They represent a kind of template, whereas the extracted and sequenced DNA segments of each individual are compared and genetic variations are detected. As the assembly of the reference genomes is a complicated and complex process, various specialists are involved.